iOS Development

Gradle Tutorial for Android: Getting Began – Half 2

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In Half 1 of this tutorial, you realized the way to learn and construct Gradle information and the way to handle dependencies in a number of methods. On this half, you’ll find out about barely extra complicated components of Gradle. By the top, you’ll have the ability to:

  1. Signal your releases and have completely different construct varieties.
  2. Create Gradle duties and plugins.
  3. Create construct flavors for revenue.

Getting Began

Obtain the starter mission by clicking the Obtain Supplies hyperlink on the prime or backside of the tutorial. You’ll choose up the place you left off in Half 1.

This a part of the tutorial will deal with the way to use Kotlin script, because it’s now the popular approach of writing Gradle information. Nevertheless, each little bit of Kotlin script code could have its Groovy equal so it’s also possible to find out about it. If the choice Groovy model doesn’t exist, you’ll be able to assume that the particular little bit of code you’re taking a look at is equivalent for each circumstances.

Getting Able to Publish: Working with Product Flavors and Construct Sorts

Within the final article, you completed constructing your app. Now, you’re considering of how to revenue from it :]

Money money money

One resolution is to have a number of variations of your app: a free model and a paid model. Happily, Gradle helps this on the construct degree and lets you outline the boundaries of various construct varieties. However earlier than you get began, it’s worthwhile to perceive how Gradle lets you work with completely different app variations.

Introducing Construct Sorts

By default, there are two construct varieties – debug and launch. The one distinction between them is the worth of the debuggable parameter. In different phrases, you should utilize the debug model to overview logs and to debug the app, however the launch kind is used to publish your app to the Google Play Retailer. Configure properties to the construct varieties by including the next code within the android block of your module-level construct.gradle.kts file:


buildTypes {
  launch {
  }
  debug {
  }
}

Specify the type-specific settings of your utility within the debug and launch blocks.

Studying About Construct Signing

One of the vital vital configurations of the construct is its signature. And not using a signature, you received’t have the ability to publish your utility as a result of it’s essential to confirm you as an proprietor of the particular utility. When you don’t have to signal the debug construct – Android Studio does it routinely — the discharge construct needs to be signed by a developer.

Word: To proceed, it’s worthwhile to generate the keystore in your launch construct. Check out this tutorial to discover a step-by-step information.

When your keystore is prepared, add the code under within the android block and above the buildTypes block (the order of declaration issues) of the module-level construct.gradle.kts file:


signingConfigs {
  create("launch") {
    storeFile = file("path to your keystore file")
    storePassword = "your retailer password"
    keyAlias = "your key alias"
    keyPassword = "your key password"
  }	
}

Should you’re utilizing Groovy, add this code as a substitute:


signingConfigs {
  launch {
    storeFile file("path to your keystore file")
    storePassword "your retailer password"
    keyAlias "your key alias"
    keyPassword "your key password"
  }
}

Within the signingConfigs block, specify your signature data for the construct varieties. Take note of the keystore file path. Specify it with respect to the module listing. In different phrases, when you created a keystore file within the module listing and named it “keystore.jks”, the worth it’s best to specify can be equal to the identify of the file.

Replace the buildTypes block to signal your launch construct routinely:


launch {
  signingConfig = signingConfigs.getByName("launch")
}

And the Groovy model:


launch {
  signingConfig signingConfigs.launch
}

Or, when you’re utilizing Groovy:

Then, make sure you hold keystorePassword.gradle.kts ignored by your model management system. Different strategies embrace conserving the password in an OS-level surroundings variable, particularly in your distant Steady Integration system, reminiscent of CircleCI.

  1. When you’ve revealed your app to the Google Play Retailer, subsequent submissions should use the identical keystore file and password, so hold them protected.
  2. Make certain NOT to commit your keystore passwords to a model management system reminiscent of GitHub. You are able to do so by conserving the password in a separate file from construct.gradle.kts, say keystorePassword.gradle.kts in a Signing listing, after which referencing the file from the app module-level construct.gradle.kts through:
    
    apply(from = "../Signing/keystorePassword.gradle.kts")
    
    
    apply from: "../Signing/keystorePassword.gradle"
    

Word: There are two vital concerns associated to your keystore file:


apply(from = "../Signing/keystorePassword.gradle.kts")

apply from: "../Signing/keystorePassword.gradle"

Utilizing Construct Flavors

With a purpose to create a number of variations of your app, it’s worthwhile to use product flavors. Flavors are a method to differentiate the properties of an app, whether or not it’s free/paid, staging/manufacturing, and so forth.

You’ll distinguish your app flavors with completely different app names. First, add the next names as strings within the strings.xml file:


<string identify="app_name_free">Socializify Free</string>
<string identify="app_name_paid">Socializify Paid</string>

And take away the present:


<string identify="app_name">Socializify</string>

Now that the unique app_name string is not obtainable, edit your AndroidManifest.xml file and substitute android:label="@string/app_name" with android:label="${appName}" contained in the utility tag.

Subsequent, add the next code within the android block of your module-level construct.gradle.kts file:


// 1
flavorDimensions.add("appMode")
// 2
productFlavors {
  // 3
  create("free") {
    // 4
    dimension = "appMode"
    // 5
    applicationIdSuffix = ".free"
    // 6
    manifestPlaceholders["appName"] = "@string/app_name_free"
  }
  create("paid") {
    dimension = "appMode"
    applicationIdSuffix = ".paid"
    manifestPlaceholders["appName"] = "@string/app_name_paid"
  }
}

Right here’s what’s taking place within the code above:

  1. It’s essential to specify the flavour dimensions to correctly match the construct varieties. On this case, you want just one dimension – the app mode.
  2. Within the productFlavors, specify a listing of flavors and their settings. On this case, free and paid.
  3. Specify the identify of the primary product taste – free.
  4. It’s obligatory to specify the dimension parameter worth. The free taste belongs to the appMode dimension.
  5. Because you need to create separate apps free of charge and paid performance, you want them to have completely different app identifiers. The applicationIdSuffix parameter defines a string that’ll be appended to the applicationId, giving your app distinctive identifiers.
  6. The manifestPlaceholders lets you modify properties in your AndroidManifest.xml file at construct time. On this case, modify the applying identify relying on its model.

The Groovy equal could be:


// 1
flavorDimensions = ["appMode"]
// 2
productFlavors {
  // 3
  free {
    // 4
    dimension "appMode"
    // 5
    applicationIdSuffix ".free"
    // 6
    manifestPlaceholders.appName = "@string/app_name_free"
  }
  paid {
    dimension "appMode"
    applicationIdSuffix ".paid"
    manifestPlaceholders.appName = "@string/app_name_paid"
  }
}

Sync your mission with Gradle once more. After the mission sync, run the duties command, and see when you can spot what’s modified:

./gradlew duties

You’ll get the same record of duties to the one you bought while you ran this command the primary time:


...
Construct duties
-----------
...
assembleDebug - Assembles principal outputs for all Debug variants.
assembleFree - Assembles principal outputs for all Free variants.
assemblePaid - Assembles principal outputs for all Paid variants.
assembleRelease - Assembles principal outputs for all Launch variants.
...

Spot the distinction? Take a look at the duties beneath the Construct duties part, and also you’ll see some new ones there. You now have separate instructions for every construct kind and construct taste.

Run the command:

./gradlew assembleDebug

When the command completes, test the output listing:


ls -R app/construct/outputs/apk

Right here’s what you’ll see:


free paid

app/construct/outputs/apk/free:
debug

app/construct/outputs/apk/free/debug:
app-free-debug.apk   output-metadata.json

app/construct/outputs/apk/paid:
debug

app/construct/outputs/apk/paid/debug:
app-paid-debug.apk   output-metadata.json

You need to have two builds generated – freeDebug and paidDebug.

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