Synthetic Intelligence and Authorized Identification

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This text focuses on the problem of granting the standing of a authorized topic to synthetic intelligence (AI), particularly primarily based on civil regulation. Authorized identification is outlined right here as an idea integral to the time period of authorized capability; nonetheless, this doesn’t suggest accepting that ethical subjectivity is identical as ethical character. Authorized identification is a fancy attribute that may be acknowledged for sure topics or assigned to others.

I imagine this attribute is graded, discrete, discontinuous, multifaceted, and changeable. Which means it will probably comprise kind of components of various sorts (e.g., duties, rights, competencies, and many others.), which normally will be added or eliminated by the legislator; human rights, which, based on the frequent opinion, can’t be disadvantaged, are the exception.

These days, humanity is dealing with a interval of social transformation associated to the substitute of 1 technological mode with one other; “sensible” machines and software program be taught fairly rapidly; synthetic intelligence methods are more and more able to changing individuals in lots of actions. One of many points that’s arising increasingly often as a result of enchancment of synthetic intelligence applied sciences is the popularity of synthetic clever methods as authorized topics, as they’ve reached the extent of creating absolutely autonomous selections and doubtlessly manifesting “subjective will”. This problem was hypothetically raised within the twentieth century. Within the twenty first century, the scientific debate is steadily evolving, reaching the opposite excessive with every introduction of recent fashions of synthetic intelligence into follow, akin to the looks of self-driving vehicles on the streets or the presentation of robots with a brand new set of features.

The authorized problem of figuring out the standing of synthetic intelligence is of a basic theoretical nature, which is brought on by the target impossibility of predicting all attainable outcomes of creating new fashions of synthetic intelligence. Nonetheless, synthetic intelligence methods (AI methods) are already precise members in sure social relations, which requires the institution of “benchmarks”, i.e., decision of elementary points on this space for the aim of legislative consolidation, and thus, discount of uncertainty in predicting the event of relations involving synthetic intelligence methods sooner or later.

The problem of the alleged identification of synthetic intelligence as an object of analysis, talked about within the title of the article, actually doesn’t cowl all synthetic intelligence methods, together with many “digital assistants” that don’t declare to be authorized entities. Their set of features is restricted, and so they signify slender (weak) synthetic intelligence. We are going to relatively check with “sensible machines” (cyber-physical clever methods) and generative fashions of digital clever methods, that are more and more approaching basic (highly effective) synthetic intelligence akin to human intelligence and, sooner or later, even exceeding it.

By 2023, the problem of making sturdy synthetic intelligence has been urgently raised by multimodal neural networks akin to ChatGPT, DALL-e, and others, the mental capabilities of that are being improved by growing the variety of parameters (notion modalities, together with these inaccessible to people), in addition to through the use of giant quantities of information for coaching that people can’t bodily course of. For instance, multimodal generative fashions of neural networks can produce such pictures, literary and scientific texts that it isn’t at all times attainable to differentiate whether or not they’re created by a human or a synthetic intelligence system.

IT specialists spotlight two qualitative leaps: a velocity leap (the frequency of the emergence of brand-new fashions), which is now measured in months relatively than years, and a volatility leap (the shortcoming to precisely predict what may occur within the discipline of synthetic intelligence even by the tip of the 12 months). The ChatGPT-3 mannequin (the third era of the pure language processing algorithm from OpenAI) was launched in 2020 and will course of textual content, whereas the following era mannequin, ChatGPT-4, launched by the producer in March 2023, can “work” not solely with texts but in addition with pictures, and the following era mannequin is studying and can be able to much more.

A number of years in the past, the anticipated second of technological singularity, when the event of machines turns into nearly uncontrollable and irreversible, dramatically altering human civilization, was thought of to happen not less than in a couple of many years, however these days increasingly researchers imagine that it will probably occur a lot quicker. This suggests the emergence of so-called sturdy synthetic intelligence, which is able to show talents akin to human intelligence and can be capable of remedy an identical and even wider vary of duties. Not like weak synthetic intelligence, sturdy AI may have consciousness, but one of many important circumstances for the emergence of consciousness in clever methods is the power to carry out multimodal habits, integrating information from completely different sensory modalities (textual content, picture, video, sound, and many others.), “connecting” data of various modalities to actuality, and creating full holistic “world metaphors” inherent in people.

In March 2023, greater than a thousand researchers, IT specialists, and entrepreneurs within the discipline of synthetic intelligence signed an open letter printed on the web site of the Way forward for Life Institute, an American analysis middle specializing within the investigation of existential dangers to humanity. The letter requires suspending the coaching of recent generative multimodal neural community fashions, as the shortage of unified safety protocols and authorized vacuum considerably improve the dangers because the velocity of AI improvement has elevated dramatically as a result of “ChatGPT revolution”. It was additionally famous that synthetic intelligence fashions have developed unexplained capabilities not meant by their builders, and the share of such capabilities is more likely to regularly improve. As well as, such a technological revolution dramatically boosts the creation of clever devices that can grow to be widespread, and new generations, trendy kids who’ve grown up in fixed communication with synthetic intelligence assistants, can be very completely different from earlier generations.

Is it attainable to hinder the event of synthetic intelligence in order that humanity can adapt to new circumstances? In concept, it’s, if all states facilitate this by nationwide laws. Will they achieve this? Primarily based on the printed nationwide methods, they will not; quite the opposite, every state goals to win the competitors (to keep up management or to slender the hole).

The capabilities of synthetic intelligence appeal to entrepreneurs, so companies make investments closely in new developments, with the success of every new mannequin driving the method. Annual investments are rising, contemplating each personal and state investments in improvement; the worldwide marketplace for AI options is estimated at a whole bunch of billions of {dollars}. In accordance with forecasts, particularly these contained within the European Parliament’s decision “On Synthetic Intelligence within the Digital Age” dated Could 3, 2022, the contribution of synthetic intelligence to the worldwide financial system will exceed 11 trillion euros by 2030.

Follow-oriented enterprise results in the implementation of synthetic intelligence applied sciences in all sectors of the financial system. Synthetic intelligence is utilized in each the extractive and processing industries (metallurgy, gasoline and chemical trade, engineering, metalworking, and many others.). It’s utilized to foretell the effectivity of developed merchandise, automate meeting strains, cut back rejects, enhance logistics, and forestall downtime.

Using synthetic intelligence in transportation includes each autonomous automobiles and route optimization by predicting site visitors flows, in addition to making certain security by the prevention of harmful conditions. The admission of self-driving vehicles to public roads is a matter of intense debate in parliaments world wide.

In banking, synthetic intelligence methods have nearly utterly changed people in assessing debtors’ creditworthiness; they’re more and more getting used to develop new banking merchandise and improve the safety of banking transactions.

Synthetic intelligence applied sciences are taking on not solely enterprise but in addition the social sphere: healthcare, schooling, and employment. The appliance of synthetic intelligence in medication permits higher diagnostics, improvement of recent medicines, and robotics-assisted surgical procedures; in schooling, it permits for personalised classes, automated evaluation of scholars and lecturers’ experience.

As we speak, employment is more and more altering as a result of exponential development of platform employment. In accordance with the Worldwide Labour Group, the share of individuals working by digital employment platforms augmented by synthetic intelligence is steadily growing worldwide. Platform employment shouldn’t be the one element of the labor transformation; the rising degree of manufacturing robotization additionally has a big affect. In accordance with the Worldwide Federation of Robotics, the variety of industrial robots continues to extend worldwide, with the quickest tempo of robotization noticed in Asia, primarily in China and Japan.

Certainly, the capabilities of synthetic intelligence to investigate information used for manufacturing administration, diagnostic analytics, and forecasting are of nice curiosity to governments. Synthetic intelligence is being applied in public administration. These days, the efforts to create digital platforms for public providers and automate many processes associated to decision-making by authorities companies are being intensified.

The ideas of “synthetic character” and “synthetic sociality” are extra often talked about in public discourse; this demonstrates that the event and implementation of clever methods have shifted from a purely technical discipline to the analysis of varied technique of its integration into humanitarian and socio-cultural actions.

In view of the above, it may be acknowledged that synthetic intelligence is turning into increasingly deeply embedded in individuals’s lives. The presence of synthetic intelligence methods in our lives will grow to be extra evident within the coming years; it can improve each within the work atmosphere and in public area, in providers and at house. Synthetic intelligence will more and more present extra environment friendly outcomes by clever automation of varied processes, thus creating new alternatives and posing new threats to people, communities, and states.

Because the mental degree grows, AI methods will inevitably grow to be an integral a part of society; individuals should coexist with them. Such a symbiosis will contain cooperation between people and “sensible” machines, which, based on Nobel Prize-winning economist J. Stiglitz, will result in the transformation of civilization (Stiglitz, 2017). Even immediately, based on some attorneys, “with a view to improve human welfare, the regulation shouldn’t distinguish between the actions of people and people of synthetic intelligence when people and synthetic intelligence carry out the identical duties” (Abbott, 2020). It must also be thought of that the event of humanoid robots, that are buying physiology increasingly much like that of people, will lead, amongst different issues, to their performing gender roles as companions in society (Karnouskos, 2022).

States should adapt their laws to altering social relations: the variety of legal guidelines aimed toward regulating relations involving synthetic intelligence methods is rising quickly world wide. In accordance with Stanford College’s AI Index Report 2023, whereas just one regulation was adopted in 2016, there have been 12 of them in 2018, 18 – in 2021, and 37 – in 2022. This prompted the United Nations to outline a place on the ethics of utilizing synthetic intelligence on the world degree. In September 2022, a doc was printed that contained the ideas of moral use of synthetic intelligence and was primarily based on the Suggestions on the Ethics of Synthetic Intelligence adopted a 12 months earlier by the UNESCO Normal Convention. Nonetheless, the tempo of improvement and implementation of synthetic intelligence applied sciences is much forward of the tempo of related adjustments in laws.

Fundamental Ideas of Authorized Capability of Synthetic Intelligence

Contemplating the ideas of probably granting authorized capability to mental methods, it ought to be acknowledged that the implementation of any of those approaches would require a elementary reconstruction of the present basic concept of regulation and amendments to a lot of provisions in sure branches of regulation. It ought to be emphasised that proponents of various views usually use the time period “digital particular person”, thus, using this time period doesn’t enable to find out which idea the creator of the work is a proponent of with out studying the work itself.

Essentially the most radical and, clearly, the least common strategy in scientific circles is the idea of the person authorized capability of synthetic intelligence. Proponents of this strategy put ahead the thought of “full inclusivity” (excessive inclusivism), which means granting AI methods a authorized standing much like that of people in addition to recognizing their very own pursuits (Mulgan, 2019), given their social significance or social content material (social valence). The latter is brought on by the truth that “the robotic’s bodily embodiment tends to make people deal with this shifting object as if it had been alive. That is much more evident when the robotic has anthropomorphic traits, because the resemblance to the human physique makes individuals begin projecting feelings, emotions of enjoyment, ache, and care, in addition to the need to ascertain relationships” (Avila Negri, 2021). The projection of human feelings onto inanimate objects shouldn’t be new, courting again to human historical past, however when utilized to robots, it entails quite a few implications (Balkin, 2015).

The conditions for authorized affirmation of this place are normally talked about as follows:

– AI methods are reaching a degree akin to human cognitive features;

– growing the diploma of similarity between robots and people;

– humanity, safety of clever methods from potential “struggling”.

Because the listing of necessary necessities exhibits, all of them have a excessive diploma of theorization and subjective evaluation. Specifically, the pattern in direction of the creation of anthropomorphic robots (androids) is pushed by the day-to-day psychological and social wants of people that really feel snug within the “firm” of topics much like them. Some trendy robots produce other constricting properties as a result of features they carry out; these embrace “reusable” courier robots, which place a precedence on sturdy building and environment friendly weight distribution. On this case, the final of those conditions comes into play, as a result of formation of emotional ties with robots within the human thoughts, much like the emotional ties between a pet and its proprietor (Grin, 2018).

The concept of “full inclusion” of the authorized standing of AI methods and people is mirrored within the works of some authorized students. Because the provisions of the Structure and sectoral laws don’t comprise a authorized definition of a character, the idea of “character” within the constitutional and authorized sense theoretically permits for an expansive interpretation. On this case, people would come with any holders of intelligence whose cognitive talents are acknowledged as sufficiently developed. In accordance with A.V. Nechkin, the logic of this strategy is that the important distinction between people and different residing beings is their distinctive extremely developed intelligence (Nechkin, 2020). Recognition of the rights of synthetic intelligence methods appears to be the following step within the evolution of the authorized system, which is regularly extending authorized recognition to beforehand discriminated in opposition to individuals, and immediately additionally gives entry to non-humans (Hellers, 2021).

If AI methods are granted such a authorized standing, the proponents of this strategy contemplate it applicable to grant such methods not literal rights of residents of their established constitutional and authorized interpretation, however their analogs and sure civil rights with some deviations. This place relies on goal organic variations between people and robots. For example, it is not sensible to acknowledge the appropriate to life for an AI system, because it doesn’t reside within the organic sense. The rights, freedoms, and obligations of synthetic intelligence methods ought to be secondary when in comparison with the rights of residents; this provision establishes the spinoff nature of synthetic intelligence as a human creation within the authorized sense.

Potential constitutional rights and freedoms of synthetic clever methods embrace the appropriate to be free, the appropriate to self-improvement (studying and self-learning), the appropriate to privateness (safety of software program from arbitrary interference by third events), freedom of speech, freedom of creativity, recognition of AI system copyright and restricted property rights. Particular rights of synthetic intelligence will also be listed, akin to the appropriate to entry a supply of electrical energy.

As for the duties of synthetic intelligence methods, it’s instructed that the three well-known legal guidelines of robotics formulated by I. Asimov ought to be constitutionally consolidated: Doing no hurt to an individual and stopping hurt by their very own inaction; obeying all orders given by an individual, aside from these aimed toward harming one other particular person; taking good care of their very own security, aside from the 2 earlier instances (Naumov and Arkhipov, 2017). On this case, the principles of civil and administrative regulation will replicate another duties.

The idea of the person authorized capability of synthetic intelligence has little or no probability of being legitimized for a number of causes.

First, the criterion for recognizing authorized capability primarily based on the presence of consciousness and self-awareness is summary; it permits for quite a few offences, abuse of regulation and provokes social and political issues as a further motive for the stratification of society. This concept was developed intimately within the work of S. Chopra and L. White, who argued that consciousness and self-awareness aren’t mandatory and/or enough situation for recognising AI methods as a authorized topic. In authorized actuality, utterly aware people, for instance, kids (or slaves in Roman regulation), are disadvantaged or restricted in authorized capability. On the similar time, individuals with extreme psychological issues, together with these declared incapacitated or in a coma, and many others., with an goal lack of ability to be aware within the first case stay authorized topics (albeit in a restricted type), and within the second case, they’ve the identical full authorized capability, with out main adjustments of their authorized standing. The potential consolidation of the talked about criterion of consciousness and self-awareness will make it attainable to arbitrarily deprive residents of authorized capability.

Secondly, synthetic intelligence methods won’t be able to train their rights and obligations within the established authorized sense, since they function primarily based on a beforehand written program, and legally important selections ought to be primarily based on an individual’s subjective, ethical alternative (Morhat, 2018b), their direct expression of will. All ethical attitudes, emotions, and wishes of such a “particular person” grow to be derived from human intelligence (Uzhov, 2017). The autonomy of synthetic intelligence methods within the sense of their means to make selections and implement them independently, with out exterior anthropogenic management or focused human affect (Musina, 2023), shouldn’t be complete. These days, synthetic intelligence is just able to making “quasi-autonomous selections” which can be one way or the other primarily based on the concepts and ethical attitudes of individuals. On this regard, solely the “action-operation” of an AI system will be thought of, excluding the power to make an actual ethical evaluation of synthetic intelligence habits (Petiev, 2022).

Thirdly, the popularity of the person authorized capability of synthetic intelligence (particularly within the type of equating it with the standing of a pure particular person) results in a damaging change within the established authorized order and authorized traditions which were fashioned because the Roman regulation and raises a lot of essentially insoluble philosophical and authorized points within the discipline of human rights. The regulation as a system of social norms and a social phenomenon was created with due regard to human capabilities and to make sure human pursuits. The established anthropocentric system of normative provisions, the worldwide consensus on the idea of inside rights can be thought of legally and factually invalid in case of creating an strategy of “excessive inclusivism” (Dremlyuga & Dremlyuga, 2019). Subsequently, granting the standing of a authorized entity to AI methods, particularly “sensible” robots, is probably not an answer to current issues, however a Pandora’s field that aggravates social and political contradictions (Solaiman, 2017).

One other level is that the works of the proponents of this idea normally point out solely robots, i.e. cyber-physical synthetic intelligence methods that can work together with individuals within the bodily world, whereas digital methods are excluded, though sturdy synthetic intelligence, if it emerges, can be embodied in a digital type as nicely.

Primarily based on the above arguments, the idea of particular person authorized capability of a synthetic intelligence system ought to be thought of as legally inconceivable beneath the present authorized order.

The idea of collective character with regard to synthetic clever methods has gained appreciable assist amongst proponents of the admissibility of such authorized capability. The principle benefit of this strategy is that it excludes summary ideas and worth judgments (consciousness, self-awareness, rationality, morality, and many others.) from authorized work. The strategy relies on the appliance of authorized fiction to synthetic intelligence.

As for authorized entities, there are already “superior regulatory strategies that may be tailored to unravel the dilemma of the authorized standing of synthetic intelligence” (Hárs, 2022).

This idea doesn’t suggest that AI methods are literally granted the authorized capability of a pure particular person however is just an extension of the present establishment of authorized entities, which suggests {that a} new class of authorized entities known as cybernetic “digital organisms” ought to be created. This strategy makes it extra applicable to contemplate a authorized entity not in accordance with the fashionable slender idea, particularly, the duty that it could purchase and train civil rights, bear civil liabilities, and be a plaintiff and defendant in courtroom by itself behalf), however in a broader sense, which represents a authorized entity as any construction aside from a pure particular person endowed with rights and obligations within the type offered by regulation. Thus, proponents of this strategy recommend contemplating a authorized entity as a topic entity (supreme entity) beneath Roman regulation.

The similarity between synthetic intelligence methods and authorized entities is manifested in the best way they’re endowed with authorized capability – by necessary state registration of authorized entities. Solely after passing the established registration process a authorized entity is endowed with authorized standing and authorized capability, i.e., it turns into a authorized topic. This mannequin retains discussions concerning the authorized capability of AI methods within the authorized discipline, excluding the popularity of authorized capability on different (extra-legal) grounds, with out inside conditions, whereas an individual is acknowledged as a authorized topic by delivery.

The benefit of this idea is the extension to synthetic clever methods of the requirement to enter data into the related state registers, much like the state register of authorized entities, as a prerequisite for granting them authorized capability. This methodology implements an vital operate of systematizing all authorized entities and making a single database, which is important for each state authorities to manage and supervise (for instance, within the discipline of taxation) and potential counterparties of such entities.

The scope of rights of authorized entities in any jurisdiction is normally lower than that of pure individuals; due to this fact, using this construction to grant authorized capability to synthetic intelligence shouldn’t be related to granting it a lot of rights proposed by the proponents of the earlier idea.

When making use of the authorized fiction method to authorized entities, it’s assumed that the actions of a authorized entity are accompanied by an affiliation of pure individuals who type their “will” and train their “will” by the governing our bodies of the authorized entity.

In different phrases, authorized entities are synthetic (summary) items designed to fulfill the pursuits of pure individuals who acted as their founders or managed them. Likewise, synthetic clever methods are created to fulfill the wants of sure people – builders, operators, house owners. A pure one who makes use of or applications AI methods is guided by his or her personal pursuits, which this method represents within the exterior atmosphere.

Assessing such a regulatory mannequin in concept, one shouldn’t overlook {that a} full analogy between the positions of authorized entities and AI methods is inconceivable. As talked about above, all legally important actions of authorized entities are accompanied by pure individuals who immediately make these selections. The desire of a authorized entity is at all times decided and absolutely managed by the desire of pure individuals. Thus, authorized entities can’t function with out the desire of pure individuals. As for AI methods, there’s already an goal drawback of their autonomy, i.e. the power to make selections with out the intervention of a pure particular person after the second of the direct creation of such a system.

Given the inherent limitations of the ideas reviewed above, numerous researchers supply their very own approaches to addressing the authorized standing of synthetic clever methods. Conventionally, they are often attributed to completely different variations of the idea of “gradient authorized capability”, based on the researcher from the College of Leuven D. M. Mocanu, who implies a restricted or partial authorized standing and authorized functionality of AI methods with a reservation: the time period “gradient” is used as a result of it isn’t solely about together with or not together with sure rights and obligations within the authorized standing, but in addition about forming a set of such rights and obligations with a minimal threshold, in addition to about recognizing such authorized capability just for sure functions. Then, the 2 predominant varieties of this idea could embrace approaches that justify:

1) granting AI methods a particular authorized standing and together with “digital individuals” within the authorized order as a wholly new class of authorized topics;

2) granting AI methods a restricted authorized standing and authorized functionality inside the framework of civil authorized relations by the introduction of the class of “digital brokers”.

The place of proponents of various approaches inside this idea will be united, on condition that there are not any ontological grounds to contemplate synthetic intelligence as a authorized topic; nonetheless, in particular instances, there are already practical causes to endow synthetic intelligence methods with sure rights and obligations, which “proves one of the best ways to advertise the person and public pursuits that ought to be protected by regulation” by granting these methods “restricted and slender” types of authorized entity”.

Granting particular authorized standing to synthetic intelligence methods by establishing a separate authorized establishment of “digital individuals” has a big benefit within the detailed clarification and regulation of the relations that come up:

– between authorized entities and pure individuals and AI methods;

– between AI methods and their builders (operators, house owners);

– between a 3rd social gathering and AI methods in civil authorized relations.

On this authorized framework, the unreal intelligence system can be managed and managed individually from its developer, proprietor or operator. When defining the idea of the “digital particular person”, P. M. Morkhat focuses on the appliance of the above-mentioned methodology of authorized fiction and the practical course of a selected mannequin of synthetic intelligence: “digital particular person” is a technical and authorized picture (which has some options of authorized fiction in addition to of a authorized entity) that displays and implements a conditionally particular authorized capability of a synthetic intelligence system, which differs relying on its meant operate or objective and capabilities.

Equally to the idea of collective individuals in relation to AI methods, this strategy includes preserving particular registers of “digital individuals”. An in depth and clear description of the rights and obligations of “digital individuals” is the idea for additional management by the state and the proprietor of such AI methods. A clearly outlined vary of powers, a narrowed scope of authorized standing, and the authorized functionality of “digital individuals” will be certain that this “particular person” doesn’t transcend its program resulting from doubtlessly impartial decision-making and fixed self-learning.

This strategy implies that synthetic intelligence, which on the stage of its creation is the mental property of software program builders, could also be granted the rights of a authorized entity after applicable certification and state registration, however the authorized standing and authorized functionality of an “digital particular person” can be preserved.

The implementation of a essentially new establishment of the established authorized order may have critical authorized penalties, requiring a complete legislative reform not less than within the areas of constitutional and civil regulation. Researchers moderately level out that warning ought to be exercised when adopting the idea of an “digital particular person”, given the difficulties of introducing new individuals in laws, because the growth of the idea of “particular person” within the authorized sense could doubtlessly lead to restrictions on the rights and legit pursuits of current topics of authorized relations (Bryson et al., 2017). It appears inconceivable to contemplate these elements because the authorized capability of pure individuals, authorized entities and public regulation entities is the results of centuries of evolution of the idea of state and regulation.

The second strategy inside the idea of gradient authorized capability is the authorized idea of “digital brokers”, primarily associated to the widespread use of AI methods as a way of communication between counterparties and as instruments for on-line commerce. This strategy will be known as a compromise, because it admits the impossibility of granting the standing of full-fledged authorized topics to AI methods whereas establishing sure (socially important) rights and obligations for synthetic intelligence. In different phrases, the idea of “digital brokers” legalizes the quasi-subjectivity of synthetic intelligence. The time period “quasi-legal topic” ought to be understood as a sure authorized phenomenon wherein sure components of authorized capability are acknowledged on the official or doctrinal degree, however the institution of the standing of a full-fledged authorized topic is inconceivable.

Proponents of this strategy emphasize the practical options of AI methods that enable them to behave as each a passive device and an energetic participant in authorized relations, doubtlessly able to independently producing legally important contracts for the system proprietor. Subsequently, AI methods will be conditionally thought of inside the framework of company relations. When creating (or registering) an AI system, the initiator of the “digital agent” exercise enters right into a digital unilateral company settlement with it, on account of which the “digital agent” is granted a lot of powers, exercising which it will probably carry out authorized actions which can be important for the principal.


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